Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion. The materials from Mount St. Helens fell out of the atmosphere quickly, while El Chichon belched enormous amounts of sulfur that remained in the atmosphere for much longer.

One of the problems with climate modification is it occurs over a relatively long period of time. Since we started paying attention to the situation, we have not had a chance to see the impact of a major eruption. The stuff we see on television is really small potatoes compared to historically eruptions of note. For example, Mount St. Helens threw roughly a half a cubic mile of material into the air. In 1815, a volcano in Indonesia belched 24 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere. Obviously, one has to imagine it impacted the climate of the earth.

Is there a relationship between climate modification and volcanoes? Undoubtedly. From what we see, however, the relationship is generally of a short duration and not an explanation for the rising temperatures we are seeing currently.

Rick Chapo is with SolarCompanies.com, a directory of solar energy companies. Visit us to read more articles on solar power and global warming and volcanoes.

If you are looking to have a fun day out shopping Birmingham is easily accessible from most areas of the UK. With all the redevelopment the city has been completely transformed into a shoppers paradise. Most of the city centre has not been pedestrianised too, so you can safely walk at ease to most of the shops in Birmingham without dodging buses or cars. Here we introduce some shops Birmingham is famous for, but are a little off the main shopping run.

Of course with any UK city shopping Birmingham is no different in many ways because of all the familiar High Street names. It is unavoidable, and because the city spreads itself out there are even multiple stores of the same name. These kind of shops in Birmingham are great if you know exactly what you want. And because most of the stores follow the same layout its easy to find your items. Perhaps these stores are not for you on this particular visit? If you are looking for some different shops Birmingham will not disappoint you.

About five minutes walk from the Bullring you will stumble upon the Square Shops in Birmingham. The Square Shopping Centre is home to quite a few alternative shops Birmingham is also famous for. If you love unusual clothes shopping Birmingham Square Shopping Centre will not disappoint you. Here you can find the Oasis fashion store which has become a Birmingham landmark with the hip and trendy for over forty years.

The Oasis is a large shopping complex which is spread out over a number of floors and which houses a whole host of independent retailers. The Oasis promises interesting shopping Birmingham visitors would not find anywhere else. From tattoos to tutus and beads to boots, these shops in Birmingham are well known and loved by students, rockers, Goths and those who just like something different. With these interesting shops Birmingham visitors will want to take their time browsing. Outside the Oasis there are also a number of public houses and food outlets to help you keep up your shopping energy.

When shopping Birmingham visitors may also be quite surprised to stumble upon live stage acts at the Square. You really do not know who you will find on stage as your browse these shops in Birmingham city centre. So when in the city make a point of venturing up the Square shops Birmingham to have a browse. Who knows what you will buy? One thing for sure you will find something that takes your fancy and an interesting shopping experience is of course guaranteed. Why not check out more about the Square online? They can be found at thesquareshoppingcentre.co.uk.

Most people agree that nude women are one of the best subjects when it comes to art such as photography and paintings. Most artists will agree that erotic photography models can be a great side line or hobby for women. This is primarily because girls are blessed with a sexy and figured body which is more eye catching than men. If you have been gifted with a passion for photography and painting, nude models can be one of the best subjects you can have. Many people are thinking about photography, including photographing erotic photography models. There are 3 principles about it which you should know if you are interested in engaging in this activity.

1.In this type of photo, you will be presenting a woman as an interesting form. There are lots of things you can do to make your photography interesting. You need to create it with a simple background and good picture quality. You need to be very careful in taking photos from various angles for you to come up with an achievable outlook.

2.Your subject may be anonymous—this type of photography is typically about the subject, erotic photography models are the main purpose of the photo. What is important is that the model is the main subject. If you want to be a good photographer, you need to learn more about these techniques in delivering various aspects of art using your camera and an erotic model. The women will be your sample when youve chosen the human body as a subject.

3.You should clearly relay on your audiences what you want to tell them—an erotic photo aims to arouse, stimulate or titillate its viewers. If you are into this type of photography, you should clearly let people know easily what you want them to feel. If you engage in nude photography alone, you can just make some interesting and sexy photos of your subject, but erotic photography can convey a different mood or feeling.

There are lots of types of photography, you should know them so you can easily tell your audiences what you want to, and here are some of them for your references:

a)Advertising photography
b)Aerial photography
c)Architectural photography
d)Astronomical photography
e)Black and white photography
f)Cityscape photography
g)Commercial photography
h)Concert photography
i)Digital photography
j)Equine photography
k)Family photography
l)Fine art nudity
m)Food photography
n)Macro photography
o)Nude photography
p)Erotic photography
q)Pet photography etc.

Nude and erotic photography is not hard to make but of course, you need to be very careful because your audiences might be confused with what you are trying to tell them. They may be confused with the erotic and nude scenes you will have. The best thing is to practice and share ideas – you can do all of this at Eroticphotolounge.com

It is so straightforward to get a gym membership on January 1st going for a couple of weeks then the next minute you get caught up inside your busy way of life, these words almost certainly sound familiar “this year I will get toned up/ lose 2 stone’s”.

How can we stop falling off track? By setting short term objectives i.e. set a three week training regime for three days Mon, Wed, Fri you should know what you’ll do on those days regardless of whether its set classes or a programme written by a fitness professional. A important step would be to weigh/ measure your self self so you might have a reference of where you began and then do the exact same at the end of the 3 weeks.

You undoubtedly desire to maintain a food diary just to start with until you get your self into a great habit of eating, plus it’s very good to see in written where youre going wrong. This can make such a distinction to the outcomes you accomplish.

Once you’ve completed the very first 3weeks you need to notice a slight change physically and mentally. In case you do not see significantly distinction do not be disheartened just be much more strict on what you eat, step up your game within the gym and maybe add an additional day to your training. An additional very good thing would be to mark the days you’ll want to attend on your calendar and inside your diary to ensure you do not overlook your three week mission. Once you’ve completed your very first three weeks makes certain you change your routine to stay away from coming to a halt or just obtaining plain board.

Timing is important, change the timing of your gym occasionally go within the morning, other times after work. This way you’ll be able to come across out the very best timings that suit you. Plenty of gyms open at 6.30am; try going just before work, see how significantly is changes the perspective of your day. You’ll feel far more relaxed.

If youre lacking motivation or never have an organised routine why not try a personal trainer just until you get into routine. It is possible to explain your objectives to them and they can put together a tailored programme for you and guide you on nutrition. An additional excellent tip would be to tell your friends, partner and work colleges what youre up to so they can ask you how youre performing at the gym, it is possible to get support from those that live with you and at least you’ll not feel so tempted to fall into eating poor habits whilst around them.

Follow this guidance and stay focused on your mission at hand, and make certain you ask the fitness experts inside your gym questions its their job to assist you.

Milan is Italy’s second biggest city, but probably the most trendy and chic, as it is very much influenced by the fashion industry. It is a very cosmopolitan city that attracts visitors and residents from all over the world. This leads to a very varied cuisine with some of the best restaurants and chefs competing for clientele and always being innovative with their cooking. Most of the trends in Italy will start here first. The Milanese people are very demanding when it comes to their food, so you will undoubtedly try some great food when you visit the city.

There are some characteristics of Milanese cuisine that make it unique, and will certainly make it a memorable experience if you are visiting this part of northern Italy.

One of the famous dishes of this Italian region (Lombardy) is the cotoletta, or breaded cutlet. Cotoletta alla Milanese is usually veal, or sometimes turkey, and fried in a pan of butter. This part of Italy uses creams and butter as opposed to olive oil and tomatoes, as you would find in southern Italian cooking.

Risotto alla Milanese

Another popular dish for Lomards is risotto giallo, or a yellow rice dish with saffron usually added, similar to some Latin-American flavors. In this region of Italy, rice has the same importance as pasta. It is usually served when pasta would be served, during the “Pasta e Primi” portion of the meal. The rice is normally toasted during the risotto making process. Rice was introduced from the orient in the 1500’s and has been a staple in Milanese cuisine ever since.

Cheese from Lombardy

The cheese from this region is typically gorgonzola, and the best type is known to come from the town of Novara.

Panettone – a Christmas treat

This Christmas time treat, is similar to fruit cake. This actually originated in Milan, but you can find it all over Italy during the holiday season. In Milan, they typically start eating it around December 7th, during a feast which honors their patron saint (Saint Ambrogio, or Ambrose). And it is typically consumed up until the Epiphany on January 6th.

Wines from Lombardy

The wines in this region are not some of Italy’s most famous, however, there are some delicious wines that are produced especially a little northeast of Milan. The type of grape is the nebbiolo grape and it produces the Valtellina Superiore and the Sorzato di Valtellina, a delicious dessert wine. Next to Lake Garda, a little north of Milan, there are some notable white wines that are produced.

Even though the cuisine is not typical Italian, you will without a doubt enjoy the food from Milan if you were to visit this part of the country during your holiday in Italy.

Glass Fiber Optics

A glass is an non-crystalline solid material. Glass plays an essential role in science and industry. The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and art. Glasses are typically brittle, and often optically transparent. Glass is commonly used for windows, bottles, or eyewear and examples of glassy materials include soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, acrylic glass, sugar glass, Muscovy-glass, or aluminium oxynitride.

Strictly speaking, a glass is defined as an inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled through its glass transition to the solid state without crystallizing. Many glasses contain silica as their main component and glass former. Commonly, glass science and physics deal only with inorganic amorphous solids, while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymer science, biology and further scientific disciplines.

Glass fibre : glass fibres thread made from glass. It is made by forcing molten glass through a kind of sieve, thereby spinning it into threads. Glass fibres is strong, durable, and impervious to many caustics and to extreme temperatures. For those qualities, fabrics woven from the glass threads are widely used for industrial purposes. Glass fibres fabrics can also be made to resemble silks and cotton and are used for curtains and drapery. A wide variety of materials are made by combining glass fibres with plastic.

Glass ingredients

Pure silica (SiO2) has a “glass melting point” at a viscosity of 10 Pascal Second (100 P) of over 2300 C(4200 F). While pure silica can be made into glass for special applications (see fused quartz), other substances are added to common glass to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the melting point to about 1500 C (2700 F) in soda-lime glass; “soda” refers to the original source of sodium carbonate in the soda ash obtained from certain plants. However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually undesirable, so lime (calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone), some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass.

Two other common glass ingredients are calumite (an iron industry by-product) and “cullet” (recycled glass). The recycled glass saves on raw materials and energy. However, impurities in the cullet can lead to product and equipment failure.

Glassmaking in the laboratory

New chemical glass compositions or new treatment techniques can be initially investigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. The raw materials for laboratory-scale glass melts are often different from those used in mass production because the cost factor has a low priority. In the laboratory mostly pure chemicals are used. Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reacted with moisture or other chemicals in the environment.

Below are 19 common deductions for someone working from home (as over 90% of coaches do).

Working from home has many advantages. For one you are able to organizing and arrange your time based on what works best for you and your family. If you work best in the morning then you are able to schedule your most important calls and computer work then, observing a more relaxed schedule in the afternoons.

Have fun and enjoy spending your income on deductible related expenses. I like to spend my money on coaching and life improvement or success books, and on coach training materials or programs.

Keep track of your receipts and easily enter the numbers into your accounting books. After you have entered it in, mark the receipt as “entered” and store it in an appropriately labeled envelope. (“June Outgoing” for example.)

As a coach working from home, what can I deduct?

1. A portion of air conditioning, electricity, heat, and water.
2. A portion of your house insurance or renters insurance.
3. A portion of your rent or mortgage can be deductible if you have a space that is dedicated to the use of your home office.
4. Bank account, check cashing and check replacement fees.
5. Books related to coaching, life change, marketing, business, taxes, bookkeeping, success, self help, weight loss, health, psychology.
6. Cleaning supplies. This includes waste baskets, cloths, and floor cleaners etc.
7. Computer parts/ supplies.
8. Salaries: general employees, assistants, secretaries, receptionists, accountants, bookkeepers.
9. Interest on any business related borrowing you did, though for a home coaching business it is rarely necessary to borrow to start your business. This would include credit card interest as well.
10. Internet.
11. Mail related items: stamps, envelopes, gas used to mail the letter.
12. Maintenance and repairs including waste and snow removal.
13. Office furniture.
14. Office supplies.
15. Phone.
16. Printer parts/ supplies.
17. Security system.
18. Software.
19. Training. (Coaching or business related.)